We emphasise that not every trial needs to be an adaptive design. The scientific rationale should dictate the need for an adaptive design to address specific research questions. Pre-planned changes to be made to the trial (trial adaptations or adaptive features) should be guided by the scientific questions and goals researchers want to achieve. The feasibility in the implementation of the adaptive design should be assessed. It should also be noted adaptive designs do not guarantee that the expected benefits are achieved.

While we have taken any measures to ensure that PANDA contains both accurate and up to date information, errors can occur. The users should accept full responsibility for the use of the information they obtain from PANDA. The PANDA team assumes no liability for any errors or omissions in the PANDA material or advice provided.

We do not endorse, recommend or promote any commercial resources (e.g. statistical software) so users may need to request additional information from vendors of such commercial material if they wish. The views, opinions, and advice expressed in PANDA are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Health Service (NHS), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), or the Department of Health and Social Care.

Project funding

This project received funding from the NIHR Clinical Trials Unit (CTU) Support Funding to support efficient/innovative delivery of NIHR research focusing on “developing skills for trials staff”.